Literature

The technology supporting CardioSecur has been studied extensively over the years. We have compiled an overview of the most relevant literature for you.

Index Reference Notion
i American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, 2009; coronary heart disease (CHD) ≥ 20 years of age inthe US, 2006; CHD includes heart attack, angina pectoris [chest pain] or both Each year 1.6 million individuals in the whole of geographic Europe suffer from myocardial infarction.
ii The Coronary Artery Disease in General Practice (CADENCE) Study, John F. Beltrame, BSc, BMBS, FRACP, PhD; Andrew J. Weekes, BMedSci, BMBS; Claire Morgan, BPhysio; Rosanna Tavella, BSc(Hons); John A. Spertus, MD, MPH, FACC Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(16):1491-1499. Every 3rd coronary artery disease patient experiences once a week angina pectoris.
iii Schnoor U, Kentsch M, Stierle U, „Determinanten der Patienten-Entscheidungszeit – ein wesentlicher Faktor der Zeitverzögerung von Patienten in der Prähospitalphase des akuten Myokardinfarktes“, Medizinische Klinik II, Univ. Lübeck, 2005 93% of the population in industrialized countries are aware that a heart attack may be lethal.
iv „Herzinfarkt – ein Wettlauf mit der Zeit“, Prof. Dr. med. Hans-Jürgen Becker, Hanau. Only 27% of the population in industrialized countries actually contact a healthcare professional within the first hour of noticeable symptoms.
v Sheifer SE, Manollo TA, Gersh BJ. Unrecognized myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:801–811 Symptoms for heart attack are often indistinct while about one out of three heart attacks occur symptom free. This is in particular true for patients suffereing from progressed diabetes mellitus.
vi „Die Therapie des Herzinfarkts“ Dr. med. Henrik Schneider, PD Dr. med. Franz Weber, Prof. Dr. med. Christoph A. Nienaber, Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin, Abteilung Kardiologie und Vaskularmedizin, Universität Rostock. Energy “reserves” of the heart muscle only tend to last for some 20-60 minutes before necrosis of muscle tissue occurs.
vii Survey by polling institute Emnid by order of the Deutsche Herzstiftung, 2008 78% of patients claim immediate alert on suspicion of myocardial infartion.
viii „Die Therapie des Herzinfarkts“ Dr. med. Henrik Schneider, PD Dr. med. Franz Weber, Prof. Dr. med. Christoph A. Nienaber, Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin, Abteilung Kardiologie und Vaskularmedizin, Universität Rostock. 11% of myocardial infarction patients receive intervention within Golden-First-Hour
iix Dower, G.E., The ECGD: a derivation of the ECG from VCG leads. Journal of Electrocardiology, 1984. 17(2): p. 189-91.
Dower, G.E., H.B. Machado, and J.A. Osborne, On deriving the electrocardiogram from vectorcadiographic leads. Clinical Cardiology, 1980. 3(2): p. 87-95.
Dower, G.E., et al., Deriving the 12-lead electrocardiogram from four (EASI) electrodes. Journal of Electrocardiology, 1988. 21 Suppl: p. S182-7.
CardioSecur devices resort to a specially reduced electrode system based on the EASI standardas described by Dower in the 1980s
ix Horacek, B.M., et al. Diagnostic accuracy of derived compared to standard 12-lead electrocardiograms. in International Society for Computerized Cardiology. 2000. Yosemite, California: Journal of Electrocardiology. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of wide complex tachycardiasand myocardial ischaemia.
x Drew, B.J. and B. Ide, Diagnosing ischemia from the bedside monitor. Prognostic Cardiovascular Nursing, 1996. 11(1): p. 45-6. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia.
xi Drew, B.J., et al., Accuracy of the EASI 12-lead electrocardiogram compares to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram for diagnosing multiple cardiac abnormalities. Journal of Electrocardiology, 1999. 32: p. 38-47. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of wide complex tachycardias and myocardial ischaemia.
xii Drew, B.J., et al., Comparison of standard and derived 12-lead electrocardiograms for diagnosis of coronary angioplasty-induced myocardial ischemia. American Journal of Cardiology, 1997. 79(5): p. 639-44. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia.
xiii Rautaharju, P.M., et al., Comparability of 12-lead ECGs derived from EASI leads with standard 12-lead ECGS in the classification of acute myocardial ischemia and old myocardial infarction. Journal of Electrocardiology, 2002. 35 Suppl: p. 35-9. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia.
xiv Drew, B.J., et al., Derived 12-lead ECG. Comparison with the standard ECG during myocardial ischemia and its potential application for continuous ST-segment monitoring. Journal of Electrocardiology, 1994. 27 Suppl: p. 249-55. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia.
xv Drew, B.J., et al., Comparison of a new reduced lead set ECG with the standard ECG for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. Journal of Electrocardiology, 2002. 35 Suppl: p. 13-21. EASI derived ECGs are comparable to the standard ECG for the diagnosis of wide complex tachycardiasand myocardial ischaemia.